CALDERA Workshop


19 January 2023

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This week we are hosting the ICDP Workshop CALDERA: Connections Among Life, geo-Dynamics and Eruptions in a Rifting Arc caldera

January 24 - 27th 2023, Tauranga, New Zealand

The workshop will have a mix of presentations and breakout discussions to plan the next phase of research.

Members of the international scientific community from 13+ countries gathering for the scientific drilling workshop in Tauranga, New Zealand in preparation for a future Full ICDP Drilling Proposal. The Workshop is directly preceding the IAVCEI Scientific Assembly at nearby Rotorua.

The project “Connections Among Life, geo-Dynamics and Eruptions in a Rifting Arc caldera (CALDERA)” aims to obtain drill cores, downhole measurements and monitoring data from the Okataina Volcanic Centre (OVC), one of two giant active calderas in the Taupō Volcanic Zone, Aotearoa New Zealand.

  • Goals of the CALDERA workshop

    1. articulate the primary and auxiliary scientific objectives
    2. identify and prioritise a list of potential drill targets, plan any additional site surveys
    3. develop drilling, safety, sampling, monitoring and archiving plans
    4. discuss Mātauranga Māori (indigeneous knowledge), education and outreach
    5. organise international discipline-based teams, clarify leaders’ and members’ responsibilities, and outline co-funding plans.

Caldera volcanoes produce Earth’s largest explosive eruptions, experience earthquakes, host mineral and geothermal resources, and support a largely unexplored biosphere.

The volcanic, tectonic, hydrologic and biologic processes in calderas are intimately connected, yet poorly understood, and require subsurface observations.


  • Tuesday 24th January

    Session: Mātauranga Māori. Chair: Craig Miller
    9.50am - 11.15am

    • Māori cultural landscape in the BOP – Rawiri Bhena
    • Cultural significance of the Pokohu-Tarawera-Rotoiti region – Tipene Marr
    • Discussion, comment on indigenous knowledge and community interests in other countries
    • Education and outreach (or discussed during the field trip)


    Session: Overview of ICDP and CALDERA project. Chair: Ery Hughes 
    11.30am - 12.40pm

    • Geothermal systems and volcanic hazards in the Bay of Plenty – BOPRC (Mark Ivamy, Penny Doorman)
    • ICDP overview: funding opportunities and operational support – Simona Pierdominici
    • CALDERA project: as presented in the Workshop Proposal - Cécile Massiot


    Session: Global knowledge gaps in rift/caldera settings that could be addressed by drilling. Chair: Pujun Wang
    1.10pm - 2.00pm

    • Caldera volcanoes – John Stix
    • Tectonics/Fluids – Domenico Liotta
    • Biosphere – Alysia Cox


    Session: Overview of knowledge and gaps in OVC/Taupō Rift to be addressed by drilling. Chair: Sarah Milicich
    2.10pm - 3.30pm

    • Volcanology – Shane Rooyakkers and Geoff Kilgour
    • Tectonics and volcano-tectonics interactions – Pilar Villamor and Cécile Massiot
    • Geophysics – Craig Miller
    • Rock physics – Ludmila Adam
    • Fluid geochemistry – Ery Hugues
    • Hydrology – Paul white
    • Biosphere – Matthew Stott


    Session: Science questions to understand caldera-rift connections - which ones can be best addressed at the OVC?
    3.45pm - 4.25pm

    Breakout discussions
    Groups: Rock-Fluids (x2), Rock-Life (x2), Fluid-life (x2), monitoring: Rock-Fluids-Life (x2)

    (1) Which of the workshop proposal questions are the "top 3"?
    (2) Which other knowledge gaps need to be addressed?
    (3) How are these globally relevant and applicable to other systems? 4- why is drilling required?

    Breakout session report – Chair: David D. McNamara

    Session: How many drillholes? 
    4.55pm - 5.55pm

    Breakout discussions

    (1) how many drillholes?
    (2) Is caldera margin/caldera centre the best way or is there other options?
    (3) do drillholes need to be linked in space and time?

    Breakout session report – Chair: Santanu Misra


  • Wednesday 25th January

    Field trip in the Okataina Volcanic Centre

  • Thursday 26th January

    Session: how drilling and measurements would address science questions Chair: Shane Rooyakkers
    8.45am - 12.00pm

    • The ICDP SUSTAIN Drilling Project at Surtsey, Iceland: Workshop and Application -- Drilling and Core Processing -- Collaborative Research Outcomes – Marie Jackson (online)
    • Drilling – Jeff Ashby and Ralph Winmill
    • Core studies - What core and cuttings can tell us compared to outcrop samples – Anja Schleicher
    • ORCA - core analysis facility – Chris Moy (online)
    • Downhole logging and in-situ stress – Doug Schmitt
    • Biosphere studies during and after drilling – Daniel Colman and Camille Thomas
    • OLGA – gas measurements while drilling - Thomas Wiersberg (recorded)
    • Well testing – Giordano Montegrossi
    • Monitoring by fiber optics – Kasper van Wijk
    • Fluids studies – Matteo Lelli


    Session: Drilling, sampling and monitoring plan 
    12.45pm - 1.45pm

    Breakout sessions.
    Geochemistry/petrology, caldera temporal evolution and tectonics, biosphere and fluids, physical properties, downhole monitoring.

    (1) Which data and sample needs to be acquired to address the research questions?
    (2) Rank data/sample needed to address the research questions: absolutely necessary / important / nice to have. Are these samples linked to another dataset?
    (3) In which time order and are there specific requirements?

    (4) Draw a schematic cross-section of each well with depth, target (stratigraphy or structural), inclination, location of data/sample acquisition

    Breakout session report – Chair: Ludmila Adam

    Session: Characteristics of good drilling locations
    2.30pm - 3.50pm

    • Potential drilling locations as a starting point – Cécile Massiot

    Breakout discussion

    (1) list and rank required characteristics for each type of drill hole.
    (2) where and why each well (pros and cons): 3 location per type of hole.
    (3) site survey needed for each.
    (4) location of nearby surface sampling and geohazard monitoring, safety monitoring and other matters to be considered.
    (5) what are the risks? (e.g.: >150
    °C, not reaching a target...). can they be mitigated? If not, how to justify risks to ICDP?


    Breakout session report – Chair: Sarah Milicich

    Session: CALDERA team organisation 
    4.30pm - 5.30pm

    • DFDP, the New Zealand example – John Townend
    • General discussion – Chair: Craig Cary
  • Friday 27th January

    Session: Key parts of the ICDP project
    8.50am - 2.30pm

    • Breakout discussions (see 3 following reports)
    • Breakout discussion report: primary science goals – Chair: Geoff Kilgour
    • Breakout discussion report: how will findings at the OVC be transferred to other systems? – Chair: M. Lelli
    • Breakout discussion report: revisit conceptual model of drillholes – Chair: Hiroshi Asanuma
    • Intellectual Property, sample/data ownership and access, then storage and archiving – Chair: Matthew Stott
    • Funding and their timelines for site surveys, drilling, associated research and outreach – Chair: Alex Nichols
    • General discussion, consolidate project team organisation, next steps - Chair: Cécile Massiot
    • Administrative points - Cécile Massiot


The CALDERA workshop online on the ICDP website here(external link).
Applications are now closed.

Massiot Cecile 2407

Cecile Massiot Geothermal Geoscientist

Cécile is a structural geologist and borehole log interpretation specialist who aims to unravel characteristics of fracture systems which conduct fluid flow in the Earth's crust. Her structural and geomechanical analyses in geothermal, hydrocarbon and active fault systems improve resource management and understanding of tectonics. She complements borehole data with outcrop, completion well test data and 3D-modeling studies and thrives in cross-disciplinary projects. Cécile has been involved in most borehole image log interpretations in New Zealand geothermal fields since the first deployment of ALT high temperature ABI tool in 2009. She has also interpreted borehole data in three scientific drilling programs: Iceland Deep Drilling Program (Iceland, 2009); Deep Fault Drilling Program (Alpine Fault, South Island of New Zealand, 2014); and IODP Exp. 376 Brothers Arc Flux (Kermadec arc offshore New Zealand, 2018).

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