Hazard maps

Ruapehu Map

Typically, a number of types of hazards will result from a volcanic eruption. Each hazard poses different risks affecting different areas. This is the key difference between eruptions and the other principal natural hazards like floods and earthquakes. Depending on where you are some of the most threatening hazards include pyroclastic falls, pyroclastic flows and surges, lava extrusions (flows and domes), lahars, debris avalanches and volcanic gases.

To help you understand the areas that may be affected hazard maps are used. These show areas that can be impacted and where it is safe.

To be effective, the risk from volcanic hazards must first be identified. Volcanic hazard analysis is based primarily on assessments of past eruptions. By studying the geological record, observing eruptions, and monitoring background levels of activity, an understanding of the likely future hazards can be gained. These are then shown in the hazard maps.

Examples of hazard Maps