Bill Fry


Full Name: Bill Fry

Position: Seismologist Tectonophysicist

Contact details

Email me here
Phone: +64-4-570 4286


2001: BSc, Geology; 2003: MSc, Geophysics; 2008: PhD, Geophysics

Areas of expertise

Geophysics: Mathematical inversion techniques
Geophysics: Seismic Scattering
Geophysics: Seismic anisotropy
Geophysics: Seismic tomography
Geophysics: Seismic wave propagation
Geophysics: Seismograph array analysis
Geophysics: Seismology
Geophysics: Stress triggering
Geophysics: Time series techniques for data analysis
Geophysics: Tsunami Forecasting
Geophysics: Tsunami hazard analysis
Geophysics: Volcano Seismology
Technical: Automobile repair
Technical: X-ray diffraction

Professional activities

American Geophysical Union: Seismology: Member
National Emergency Management Agency: NCMC: Event Response Science Advisor
American Geophysical Union: Natural Hazards: Secretary
Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment: College of Assessors
NZ UNESCO: UN Decade of Oceans: Committee Member
GNS Science: Tsunami Expert Panel: Panel Scientist
UN Intergovernmental Coordination Group: Pacific Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System - Working Group 2: member
Seismology Society of America: Member
Intergovernmental Co-ordination Group: Pacific Tsunami Warning System: NZ Delegate
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade: International Ocean Issues Working Group: Committee Member

Major publications

Mochizuki, K.; Henrys, S.A.; Haijima, D.; Warren-Smith, E.; Fry, B. 2021 Seismicity and velocity structure in the vicinity of repeating slow slip earthquakes, northern Hikurangi subduction zone, New Zealand. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 563: article 116887; doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2021.116887

Yao, D.; Peng, Z.; Kaneko, Y.; Fry, B.; Meng, X. 2021 Dynamic triggering of earthquakes in the North Island of New Zealand following the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 557: article 116723; doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2020.116723

Yin, Y.; Wiemer, S.; Kissling, E.; Lanza, F.; Fry, B. 2021 Seismicity rate change as a tool to investigate delayed and remote triggering of the 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence, New Zealand. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 111(4): 2248–2269; doi: 10.1785/0120210006

Arai, R.; Kodaira, S.; Henrys, S.A.; Bangs, N.L.; Obana, K.; Fujie, G.; Miura, S.; Barker, D.H.N.; Bassett, D.; Bell, R.; Mochizuki, K.; Kellett, R.L.; Stucker, V.K.; Fry, B. 2020 Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure of the northern Hikurangi margin from the NZ3D experiment: evidence for fault-bound anisotropy. Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth, 125(12): e2020JB020433; doi: 10.1029/2020JB020433

Fry, B.; McCurrach, S.-J.; Gledhill, K.R.; Power, W.L.; Williams, M.; Angove, M.; Arcas, D.; Moore, C. 2020 Sensor network warns of stealth tsunamis. Eos, 101: doi: 10.1029/2020EO144274

Todd, E.K.; Stirling, M.W.; Fry, B.; Salichon, J.; Villamor, P. 2020 Characterising microseismicity in a low seismicity region : applications of short-term broadband seismic arrays in Dunedin, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 63(3): 331-341; doi: 10.1080/00288306.2019.1707238

Angove, M.; Arcas, D.; Bailey, R.; Carrasco, P.; Coetzee, D.; Fry, B.; Gledhill, K.R.; Harada, S.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Kong, L.; McCreery, C.; McCurrach, S.-J.; Sakya, A.E.; Miao, Y.; Schindele, F. 2019 Ocean observations required to minimize uncertainty in global tsunami forecasts, warnings, and emergency response. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6: article 350; doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00350

Warren-Smith, E.; Fry, B.; Wallace, L.M.; Chon, E.; Henrys, S.A.; Sheehan, A.; Mochizuki, K.; Schwartz, S.; Webb, S.; Lebedev, S. 2019 Episodic stress and fluid pressure cycling in subducting oceanic crust during slow slip. Nature geoscience, 12(6): 475-481; doi: 10.1038/s41561-019-0367-x

Yarce, J.; Sheehan, A.F.; Nakai, J.S.; Schwartz, S.Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Savage, M.K.; Wallace, L.M.; Henrys, S.A.; Webb, S.C.; Ito, Y.; Abercrombie, R.E.; Fry, B.; Shaddox, H.; Todd, E.K. 2019 Seismicity at the northern Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand, and investigation of the potential spatial and temporal relationships with a shallow slow slip event. Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth, 124(5): 4751-4766; doi: 10.1029/2018JB017211

Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Fry, B. 2018 Joint local earthquake and teleseismic inversion for 3-D velocity and Q in New Zealand. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 283: 48-66; doi: 10.1016/j.pepi.2018.08.005

Peng, Z.; Fry, B.; Chao, K.; Yao, D.; Meng, X.; Jolly, A.D. 2018 Remote triggering of microearthquakes and tremor in New Zealand following the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 108(3B): 1784-1793; doi: 10.1785/0120170327

Todd, E.K.; Schwartz, S.Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Wallace, L.M.; Sheehan, A.F.; Webb, S.C.; Williams, C.A.; Nakai, J.; Yarce, J.; Fry, B.; Henrys, S.A.; Ito, Y. 2018 Earthquakes and tremor linked to seamount subduction during shallow slow slip at the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth, 123(8): 6769-6783; doi: 10.1029/2018JB016136

Warren-Smith, E.; Fry, B.; Kaneko, Y.; Chamberlain, C.J. 2018 Foreshocks and delayed triggering of the 2016 MW7.1 Te Araroa earthquake and dynamic reinvigoration of its aftershock sequence by the MW7.8 Kaikoura earthquake, New Zealand. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 482: 265-276; doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.11.020

Wen, Y.-Y.; Ma, K.-F.; Fry, B. 2018 Multiple-fault, slow rupture of the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura, New Zealand, earthquake : complementary insights from teleseismic and geodetic data. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 108(3B): 1774-1783; doi: 10.1785/0120170285

Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Fry, B. 2017 A new scheme for joint surface wave and earthquake travel-time inversion and resulting 3-D velocity model for the western North Island, New Zealand. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 269: 98-111; doi: 10.1016/j.pepi.2017.05.014

Godfrey, H.J.; Fry, B.; Savage, M.K. 2017 Shear-wave velocity structure of the Tongariro Volcanic Centre, New Zealand: Fast Rayleigh and slow Love waves indicate strong shallow anisotropy. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 336: 33-50; doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.01.019

Holden, C.; Kaneko, Y.; D'Anastasio, E.; Benites, R.; Fry, B.; Hamling, I.J. 2017 The 2016 Kaikoura earthquake revealed by kinematic source inversion and seismic wavefield simulations : slow rupture propagation on a geometrically complex crustal fault network. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(22): 11320-11328; doi: 10.1002/2017GL075301

Jolly, A.D.; Lokmer, I.; Thun, J.; Salichon, J.; Fry, B.; Chardot, L. 2017 Insights into fluid transport mechanisms at White Island from analysis of coupled very long-period (VLP), long-period (LP) and high-frequency (HF) earthquakes. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 343: 75-94; doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.06.006

Kaiser, A.E.; Balfour, N.J.; Fry, B.; Holden, C.; Litchfield, N.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; D'Anastasio, E.; Horspool, N.A.; McVerry, G.H.; Ristau, J.; Bannister, S.; Christophersen, A.; Clark, K.J.; Power, W.L.; Rhoades, D.A.; Massey, C.I.; Hamling, I.J.; Wallace, L.M.; Mountjoy, J.; Kaneko, Y.; Benites, R.A.; Van Houtte, C.; Dellow, G.D.; Wotherspoon, L.; Elwood, K.; Gledhill, K.R. 2017 The 2016 Kaikoura, New Zealand, earthquake : preliminary seismological report. Seismological Research Letters, 88(3): 727-739; doi: 10.1785/0220170018

Wallace, L.M.; Kaneko, Y.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Hamling, I.J.; Peng, Z.; Bartlow, N.; D'Anastasio, E.; Fry, B. 2017 Large-scale dynamic triggering of shallow slow slip enhanced by overlying sedimentary wedge. Nature geoscience, 10(10): 765-770; doi: 10.1038/ngeo3021

Fry, B.; Ma, K.-F. 2016 Implications of the great Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the understanding of natural hazard in Taiwan and New Zealand. Seismological Research Letters, 87(6): 1254-1258; doi: 10.1785/0220160154

Gerstenberger, M.C.; Fry, B. 2016 Preface to the focus section on the joint Japan–Taiwan–New Zealand national seismic hazard model collaboration. Seismological Research Letters, 87(6): 1236-1239; doi: 10.1785/0220160166

Power, W.L.; Wallace, L.M.; Mueller, C.; Henrys, S.A.; Clark, K.J.; Fry, B.; Wang, X.; Williams, C.A. 2016 Understanding the potential for tsunami generated by earthquakes on the southern Hikurangi subduction interface. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 59(1): 70-85; doi: 10.1080/00288306.2015.1127825

Fry, B.; Davey, F.J.; Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Lebedev, S. 2014 Depth variable crustal anisotropy, patterns of crustal weakness, and destructive earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 392: 50-57; doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.02.013

Fry, B.; Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Davey, F.J. 2014 Mantle accommodation of lithospheric shortening as seen by combined surface wave and teleseismic imaging in the South Island, New Zealand. Geophysical Journal International, 199(1): 499-513; doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu271

Jolly, A.D.; Joussett, P.; Lyons, J.J.; Carniel, R.; Fournier, N.; Fry, B.; Miller, C.A. 2014 Seismo-acoustic evidence for an avalanche driven phreatic eruption through a beheaded hydrothermal system : an example from the 2012 Tongariro eruption. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 286: 331-347; doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.04.007

Lawrence, J.F.; Cochran, E.S.; Chung, A.; Kaiser, A.E.; Christensen, C.M.; Allen, R.; Baker, J.W.; Fry, B.; Heaton, T.; Kilb, D.; Kohler, M.D.; Taufer, M. 2014 Rapid earthquake characterization using MEMS accelerometers and volunteer hosts following the M 7.2 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 104(1): 184-192; doi: 10.1785/0120120196

Wallace, L.M.; Bartlow, N.; Hamling, I.J.; Fry, B. 2014 Quake clamps down on slow slip. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(24): 8840-8846; doi: 10.1002/2014GL062367

Harris, C.R.; Pettke, T.; Heinrich, C.A.; Rosu, E.; Woodland, S.; Fry, B. 2013 Tethyan mantle metasomatism creates subduction geochemical signatures in non-arc Cu–Au–Te mineralizing magmas, Apuseni Mountains (Romania). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 366: 122-136; doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2013.01.035

Ristau, J.; Holden, C.; Kaiser, A.E.; Williams, C.A.; Bannister, S.; Fry, B. 2013 The Pegasus Bay aftershock sequence of the Mw 7.1 Darfield (Canterbury), New Zealand earthquake. Geophysical Journal International, 195(1): 444-459; doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt222

Kaiser, A.E.; Holden, C.; Beavan, R.J.; Beetham, R.D.; Benites, R.A.; Celentano, A.; Collet, D.; Cousins, W.J.; Cubrinovski, M.; Dellow, G.D.; Denys, P.; Fielding, E.; Fry, B.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; Langridge, R.M.; Massey, C.I.; Motagh, M.; Pondard, N.; McVerry, G.H.; Ristau, J.; Stirling, M.W.; Thomas, J.; Uma, S.R.; Zhao, J.X. 2012 The Mw 6.2 Christchurch Earthquake of February 2011 : preliminary report. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 55(1): 67-90; doi: 10.1080/00288306.2011.641182

Bannister, S.; Fry, B.; Reyners, M.E.; Ristau, J.; Zhang, H. 2011 Fine-scale relocation of aftershocks of the 22 February Mw 6.2 Christchurch Earthquake using double-difference tomography. Seismological Research Letters, 82(6): 839-845; doi: 10.1785/gssrl.82.6.839

Cochran, E.S.; Lawrence, J.F.; Kaiser, A.E.; Fry, B.; Chung, A.; Christensen, C. 2011 Comparison between low-cost and traditional MEMS accelerometers : a case study from the M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand aftershock deployment. Annals of Geophysics, 54(6): 728-737

Fry, B.; Benites, R.A.; Kaiser, A.E. 2011 The character of accelerations in the Mw 6.2 Christchurch Earthquake. Seismological Research Letters, 82(6): 846-852; doi: 10.1785/gssrl.82.6.846

Fry, B.; Benites, R.A.; Reyners, M.E.; Holden, C.; Kaiser, A.E.; Bannister, S.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; Williams, C.A.; Ristau, J.; Beavan, R.J. 2011 Strong shaking in recent New Zealand earthquakes. Eos, 92(41): 349-351

Fry, B.; Chao, K.; Bannister, S.; Peng, Z.; Wallace, L.M. 2011 Deep tremor in New Zealand triggered by the 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake. Geophysical Research Letters, 38: L15306; doi: 10.1029/2011GL048319

Fry, B.; Gerstenberger, M.C. 2011 Large apparent stresses from the Canterbury earthquakes of 2010 and 2011. Seismological Research Letters, 82(6): p, 833-838; doi: 10.1785/gssrl.82.6.833

Gledhill, K.R.; Ristau, J.; Reyners, M.E.; Fry, B.; Holden, C. 2011 The Darfield (Canterbury, New Zealand) Mw7.1 earthquake of September 2010 : a preliminary seismological report. Seismological Research Letters, 82(3): 378-386; doi: 10.1785/gssrl.82.3.378

Fry, B.; Bannister, S.; Beavan, R.J.; Bland, L.; Bradley, B.A.; Cox, S.C.; Cousins, W.J.; Gale, N.H.; Hancox, G.T.; Holden, C.; Jongens, R.; Power, W.L.; Prasetya, G.; Reyners, M.E.; Ristau, J.; Robinson, R.; Samsonov, S.; Wilson, K.J.; GeoNet team 2010 The Mw 7.6 Dusky Sound earthquake of 2009 : preliminary report. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(1): 24-40

Fry, B.; Deschamps, F.; Kissling, E.; Stehly, L.; Giardini, D. 2010 Layered azimuthal anisotropy of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the European Alpine lithosphere inferred from ambient noise. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 297(1/2): 95-102; doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.06.008

Gledhill, K.R.; Ristau, J.; Reyners, M.E.; Fry, B.; Holden, C. 2010 The Darfield (Canterbury) earthquake of September 2010 : preliminary seismological report. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(4): 215-221

Boschi, L.; Fry, B.; Ekstroem, G.; Giardini, D. 2009 The European upper mantle as seen by surface waves. Surveys in geophysics, 30(4/5): 463-501; doi: 10.1007/s10712-009-9066-2

Stehly, L.; Fry, B.; Campillo, M.; Shapiro, N.M.; Guilbert, J.; Boschi, L.; Giardini, D. 2009 Tomography of the Alpine region from observations of seismic ambient noise. Geophysical Journal International, 178(1): doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04132.x

Fry, B.; Boschi, L.;Ekstrom, G.; Giardini, D. 2008 Europe-Mediterranean tomography : high correlation between new seismic data and independent geophysical observables. Geophysical Research Letters, 35: L04301; doi: 10.1029/2007GL031519

Peter, D.; Boschi, L.; Deschamps, F.; Fry, B.; Ekstrom, G.; Giardini, D. 2008 A new finite-frequency shear-velocity model of the European-Mediterranean region. Geophysical Research Letters, 35: L16315; doi: 10.1029/2008GL034769

Duebendorfer, E.M.; Chamberlain, K.R.; Fry, B. 2006 Mojave-Yavapai boundary zone, southwestern United States : a rifting model for the formation of an isotopically mixed crustal boundary zone. Geology, 34(8): 681-684

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