GNS Science NZ catalogue of fossil spores and

New Zealand fossil spores and pollen:
An illustrated catalogue

J.I. Raine, D.C. Mildenhall, E.M. Kennedy

Trilites fragilis Couper 1953


Couper 1953, pl. 2, fig. 19 (holotype).

Couper 1960, pl. 2, fig. 5 (holotype)

Mildenhall 1994 pl.8, fig. 4 (cf.)

IGNS taxon number: 71.

Turmal classification (after Burger 1994): Anteturma SPORITES; Turma TRILETES; Suprasubturma ACAVATITRILETES; Subturma AZONATI; Infraturma LAEVIGATI.


1953 Trilites fragilis Couper p. 30, pl. 2, fig. 19.

1959 Punctatisporites fragilis (Couper) Krutzsch p. 67.

1960 Trilites fragilis Couper; Couper p. 41, pl. 2, fig. 5.

1978 Trilites fragilis Couper; Mildenhall p. 661.

1984 Trilites fragilis Couper; Raine p. 10.

1989 Trilites fragilis; Browne & MacKinnon text-figs 11-13.

1994 Trilites sp. cf. T. fragilis Couper; Mildenhall pp. 12, 67-68, pl. 8, fig. 4.

Natural affinity: Filicopsida?; e.g. Osmundaceae (smooth, spherical, thin walled types), fossil Todites williamsii (Brongn.), T. princeps (Presl.) Gothan.

NZ age range: Cretaceous.

Brief description: Spore. Trilete.

Cite this publication as: "J.I. Raine, D.C. Mildenhall, E.M. Kennedy (2011). New Zealand fossil spores and pollen: an illustrated catalogue. 4th edition. GNS Science miscellaneous series no. 4.".
© GNS Science, 2011
ISBN 978-0-478-19871-3
ISSN 1177-2441
(Available also in CD version from: Publications Officer, GNS Science, P.O. Box 30368 Lower Hutt, New Zealand)

DELTA Dallwitz (1980) and Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher (1993, 1999) should also be cited (see References).