Geographic Region of Origin

Connectivity between a sample and its origin.

Geographical differences are oriented to climatic and ground specific factors.


Plants and animals take in water from their environment, therefore the water retained in their tissue reflect the hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios found in their region of origin. Water is a regional factor.

Plants and animals also take up nitrogen, sulphur and carbon from their environment. Therefore these isotope ratios provide information such as local soils, fertilisers, diet and feeding methods. These are local factors.

Other local factors can include levels of heavy metals, elemental composition and biogeochemical markers (e.g. pollens, spores, minerals).

Isoscapes (isotope maps of landscapes) can be used to provide a model of probability of an individual sample’s origin.

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