Other heat sources

alumina smelter

Alumina smelting.

pulp and paper processing

Pulp and paper processing.

New Zealand’s abundant geothermal resources also include some unconventional opportunities:

  • exhaust sources from industry, such as water and steam discharged from thermal power generation plants
  • waste heat from energy-intensive industries, such as aluminium smelting and pulp and paper manufacture
  • heat extracted from the fluids produced from oil and gas wells (termed geothermal hydrocarbon coproduction)
  • heat energy from disused hydrocarbon wells
  • heated waters in flooded underground coal and mineral mines
  • heat in underground aquifers in various parts of New Zealand that could be harnessed by well bore heat exchanger technology
  • enhanced geothermal systems – creating permeability in hot, dry rock to harness heat for electricity generation