Rano Aroi and Rano Raraku
CONAF has asked us to take a native guide with us each day. This serves two purposes. First, the guide will keep an eye on us and make sure we don't do anything we shouldn't -- there are so many archaeological artifacts and sites here, this is more useful than it may sound. Second, the guide knows the island extremely well. It was suggested that we take a guide named Zoro who has worked with scientists and archaeologists his whole life, going all the way back to William Malloy (still regarded as the greatest archaeologist to work here). I was briefly resistant to the idea of having a guide that doesn't speak hardly any English (because we speak hardly any Spanish), but amazingly we seem to understand each other very well because of his experience working with scientists. Nevertheless, I am making it a priority to try to learn some more Spanish as fast as possible.
Today we looked at Rano Aroi and other depressions on the largest mountain on the island. These depressions collect the sediments we want to bring back to the lab to analyse. The depressions here will help us understandithe highest elevation areas, which we think were the last to be deforested. Previously, work here has focused on the crater at Rano Aroi which has a large swamp. Unfortunately, there was an effort to clear away the upper meter of peat some years ago and previous results suggest that it may or may not still contain sediments that will give us the results we want. Luckily in several hours of walking, we found areas that appear likely to give us excellent records from the last 1000 years.
We then proceeded into the crater at Rano Raraku, where the moai (statues) were made. This site has proven most popular to core, for reasons that may be obvious from today's photo - be sure to note the moai in the background. With a lake sediment core, we look backward in time as we go down. In each layer of sediment from the lake, pollen, soil and all sorts of other biological and chemical markers tell us what the surrounding environment was like when that layer formed. So, it has proven possible to work back through time, identifying when the forest around the lake was cleared, and when massive statue building activity was underway, as well as when European introductions of trees and grasses occurred.